Egyptian Nutrition Society
الجمعية المصرية للتغذية
ABSTRACTS, PLENARY LECTURES, (KEYNOTES)
FAO’s Food and Nutrition Education Approach for Healthy Diets
Prof. Fatma Hashim
The FAO Food and Nutrition Education (FNE) work aims to build people’s capacities to achieve and maintain a healthy diet within sustainable food systems. The approach goes beyond information and message dissemination, to influencing attitudes and behaviors. Within this context, the work of FAO is centered on 4 main areas of focus.
The first is the development and implementation of Food-based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs), which are tools that address the public with clear nutritional messages, based on scientific evidence, to help them make better dietary choices that are culturally adapted to the local context.
The second is the integrated approach of food production and nutrition education. This aims at empowering individuals and communities with the technical know-how for producing and diversifying their food as well as for addressing the local nutrition challenges through problem diagnosis and development of locally appropriate communication and nutrition education strategy for improving the nutrition outcomes at the household level.
Furthermore, the school setting represents another key area of work due to its ability to simultaneously affect education, food security and nutrition through various access points and opportunities. Current work is focused on supporting FNE strategies within and beyond the classroom, that coherently link with the school food offer and environment to facilitate the adoption of healthy practices and habits in children, families and communities.
At the same time, and consistent with the Organization’s work in capacity development, FAO has developed a training scheme for professionals to plan, implement and evaluate effective FNE interventions in their own contexts, which was initially targeted to Africa but is currently being scaled up and expanded to other regions.
The approach that FAO has used in Egypt to address the problems of malnutrition in five governorates in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation will be highlighted.
Dr. Fatima Hachem is the team leader of the Nutrition Education and Consumer Awareness Group in the Nutrition and Food Systems Division of FAO. Before assuming this function, she has served for 15 years as the Regional Food and Nutrition Officer in the FAO Regional Office for the Near East and North Africa where her responsibilities covered nutrition and food safety. Before joining FAO, she was a senior lecturer at the University of Teesside, UK and a researcher at the University of Lyon 2, France. She holds a Ph.D in Food Science from the University of Reading, UK and a BSC and MSC in nutrition form the American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
Food, Feed and Fuel from Lignocellulose and Biowaste
Prof. Børge Holm Christensen
Great quantities of lignocellulose are available as byproducts from food and feed production. Huge quantities of wood are also becoming available because the traditional wood production in colder climates is being replaced with fast growing eucalyptus and acacia trees which can produce up to 10 t/y dry matter per ha in tropical and subtropical regions, when they are harvested after 5-7 years.
Advanced production technology
BHC will discuss novel processing technology for bio-refineries using Integrated Biomass Utilisation Systems (IBUS) for energy efficient production of food feed and fuel. Special attention will be paid to:
· Continuous, counter current organosolv pretreatment with ethanol/water as solvent
· Horizontal, diabatic distillation and evaporation system
· Superheated steam dehydration systems
The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) is growing rapidly because of the ongoing global urbanization. MSW is difficult to utilize, because of the very heterogeneous composition, comprising biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) such as food residues, paper, card board and non-BMW components such as glass, metal and plastic. Therefore the most common way to dispose of MSW is landfill or to use incineration to recover some energy. The policy in EU is to promote “circular economy” which means that MSW has to be separated in order to make reuse of the different fractions possible.
BHC will discuss source separation versus automatic separation using the proprietary “Water sorter” technology.
Special attention will be paid to utilization of the BMW fraction as substrate for production of ethanol, single cell protein and amino acids.
Nutrition Education in Relation to Food Security
Prof. Akila Hamza
General Coordinator for Food Security Information Center
The linkage between food security and nutrition education has been widely discussed and studied through many projects conducted by the World Bank, USAID, FAO and IFPRI. The availability and accessibility of food which are the main elements of food security are not enough to meet the goal of having healthy well nourished population or solving problems of stunting, micronutrient deficiencies and obesity. Families need to be educated how to choose adequate healthy diet covering requirements of all member of the family .children during growth period, women during pregnancy, lactation and others.
Nutrition education messages should be designed for consumers .In case of Egypt, where great variation in the economical and educational status exists between different groups of the population need more than one programme in villages, with communities of low income and poor educational level. Special programme for nutrition education should be designed. Training of female extension staff to work as trainees is important. Educational kitchens were established for practical training using available cheap food stuffs for preparing healthy adequate diets.
Food security programme was implemented by establishing family farms where they grow their vegetables and fruits at home covering their needs of micronutrients and selling the rest getting income. Another programmer was set for higher economical and well educated class including all the needed information about healthy eating. This took place in big markets where professionals are meeting customers explaining and distributing nutrition education messages and leaflets.
Food-based Dietary Guidelines --- Reorienting from Nutrients to Foods
Prof. Nafissa M. Eid
Proper nutrition from conception through all stages of the life cycle is essential for leading a healthy productive and high-quality life. Each country has its own public health issues related to local food and dietary patterns and adopting suitable strategies for their resolution. Because most people think in terms of foods rather than nutrients, food-based dietary guidelines FBDG was introduced as an educational instrument that converts scientific knowledge of nutrient requirements and food composition into practical messages that facilitate healthy food selection and consumption. Scientific areas relevant to the development of FBDG and preparation stages (characterizing nutritional problems associated with diet; setting objectives; preparing technical guidelines; testing the feasibility of the recommendations; preparing FBDG; validation; correction and adjustment; implementation and evaluation) are discussing. Demonstration FBDG from different countries is presenting.
The 1st FBDG in Egypt developed and used since the 1960s in form of three pyramids visualizing energy, tissue building and protective foods. In 1995, a comprehensive FBDG was developed as guide for educators targeting all family members. It focused on food groups’ diversification and daily meal models for different economic groups. Based on recent national surveys, nutrition-double burden problem exists: under nutrition (stunting among children and micronutrient deficiencies of iron, vit. A calcium & iodine) and increase prevalence of non-communicable diseases (obesity & overweight, diabetes mellitus & hypertension). Recommendation is given to review and updating FBDG including set of clear massages based on the recent public health nutrition problems.
Egypt Iodine Survey 2014-15
Prof. Zienab Bakry
Iodine deficiency is the single greatest cause of preventable mental impairment Iodinedeﬁciency
Egypt has been reported over the past 90 years, starting with an observation of the high prevalence of goiter among Egyptian farmers in 1924. A series of studies over the next 70 years revealed some level of iodine deﬁciency in different areas across the country. The highest prevalence of goiter (82.3%) and lowest urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) were found in Upper Egypt and the New Valley Governorate.
In 2014-2015, the Egyptian MOHP, in collaboration with GAIN and UNICEF-Egypt, decided to conduct another national survey of household iodized salt coverage and iodine status; to determine progress made since the previous survey towards sustained elimination of IDD among primary school age children (PSC); to verify iodine nutrition among pregnant women (PW), the group most vulnerable to the effect of iodine deficiency; and to determine current household use of adequately iodized salt. This presentation will presents the ﬁndings of the most recent 2014-15 survey.
Nanotechnology and Nutrition
Prof. Taher A. Salaheldin
Nanotechnology & Advanced Materials Central Lab, Agriculture Research Center, Egypt.Mostafa Elsayed Nanotechnology Research Center, British University in Egypt,
Nanotechnologies are the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at nano-meter scale (1– 100 nm).At such scale, materials acquire novel properties and functions occur because of size. Nanotechnology is becoming important in enabling breakthroughs of new and effective solutions for many scientific and technical problems. In nutrition, nanotechnology applications may assist with obtaining accurate spatial information about the location of a nutrient or bioactive food component in a tissue, cell, or cellular component. Ultrasensitive detection of nutrients and metabolites, as well as increasing an understanding of nutrient and biomolecular interactions in specific tissues, has become possible in addition to the potential to improve nutritional assessment and measures of bioavailability. Specific applications of nanotechnology to date in food and nutrition include: modifying taste, color, and texture of foods; detection of food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms; enhancing nutrition quality of foods;and novel vehicles for nutrient delivery, as well as serving as a tool to enable further elucidation of nutrient metabolism and physiology. Food nanotechnology application involves creating coatings for foods and food packaging that serve as barriers to bacteria or that contain additional nutrients. There are challenges with the emergence of nanotechnology in nutrition that include issues related to toxicity and the environmental impact of nanoscalenutrients. The social, ethical, legal, and cultural implications of nanotechnology must also be considered. Nutritional products claiming to use nanotechnology are currently available in the market. It is important to recognize that the potential toxicity of nutrients can be affected by a change in particle size.
Food and Feed Additives and their Impact on Food and Feed Safety2
Food additives: Historically, food were grown, collected and eaten directly from arelatively unpolluted earth. Wild food were sought and gathered. Cleaner oceans, lakes and rivers fed us nutritious fish. As the human population grew exponentially, farming progressed, trade and local markets shared a variety of goods among a diversity of people. Techniques of food preparation and preservation such as picking, salting and smoking were developed to deal with the new problems of storage, waste and food -borne illnesses. With advanced technology our modern food industry’s reliance on processing and additives continuous to increase. Food additives are substances added to products to perform specific technological functions. These functions include:
- Preservatives to prevent the growth of micro-organisms could cause food spoilage and lead to food poisoning and to extend the shelf-life of products so that they can be distributed and sold to the consumers with a longer shelf-file (bacon, ham, corned beef are often treated with nitrite and nitrate during the curing process).
- Antioxidants to prevent food containing fat or oil from going rancid due to oxidation, developing an unpleasant odor of flavor and prevent the browning of cut fruit vegetables and fruit juices and so increase shelf-life and appearance (vitamin c and ascorbic acid is one of the most widely used).
- Colures aim to restore color last during processing or storage and to ensure that each batch produced is identical in appearance and to give colors to foods which otherwise would be colorless (e.g. soft drinks) and so make them more attractive.
- Flavorings are added to a wide range of food in small amounts to give a particular taste.
- Sweeteners are used in small amounts in diet food and soft drinks.
- Acids, bases and buffers to control the acidity or alkalinity of food, for safety and stability of flavor.
- Anti-cocking agents to ensure free movement as flow of particles in dried milk as table salt.
- Anti-foaming agents to prevent as disperse farthing in the production of fruit juices.
Types of additives may be:
- Natural - found naturally, such as extracts from beetroot juice, used as a coloring agent.
- Manmade versions - synthetic identical copies of substances found naturally, such as benzoic acid use as a preservative. These products may prove more efficient. Artificial-produced synthetically and not found naturally, such as nisin, used as a preservative in some dairy products. some artificial colors have almost disappeared from foods.
- What are the effect of food additives? Avoiding as Minimizing toxins in your diet is an important step toward enhancing your health and lower in your risk of disease. Foods amongst other things represent a source of these toxins. Effects of food additives may be immediate as may be harmful in the long run if you have constant exposure. Immediate effects may include headaches, change in energy level as immune response Long - term effects may increase your risk of cancer and other dengerative conditions. A recent British study found that children without a history of any hyperactive disorder showed varing degrees of hyperactivity after consuming fruit drinks with various levels of additives. Among those that were studied were sodium benzoate, tattrazinequinoline yellow, sunset yellow, carmosine and altera red. If concentrated cordial drinks that contain sweeteners are given to children between the ages of 6 months to 4 years, it is important to dilute them more than for adults. Infants under 6 months should not be given cordial drinks.
Finally, make a decision to either cut down on or cut out altogether those food additives that may be hazardous to your health. Although it may difficult to change habits and find substitute for foods you enjoy. Enjoy fresh fruits, vegetables, grains beans, nuts and seeds.
Feed Additives:All animals need to receive a nutritious diet in order to maintain good health and production. In the wild, animals consume a wide variety of feed ingredients. Today animals that receive the rudimentary ingredients will not thrive the nutritional quality of feed depends on as a variety of other factors, including feed presentation, microbial contamination, content of antnutritional factors, digestibility and intestinal healthfulness, A variety of feed additives are available to deal with these issues:Feed additives are non-nutritive substances added to feed or water in order to improve the efficiency of feed utilization and feed acceptance as to be beneficial to the health or metabolism of animal in some way. Various types of feed additives:
1. Additives that influence feed stability, feed manufacturing and non-nutritive properties of feeds
a. Mold inhibitors ( antifungals ) propionic acid to diet prevents mold growth and ammoniation of stored grains prevents aflatoxins and provides a source of non-protein nitrogen(NPN).
b. Antioxidants (preservative). Adding antioxidants to the diet in activate peroxides. Rancid oils can be toxic. Natural antioxidants include vitamin C and E and selenium but these are expensive.
c. Pellet binders (bentonite and clay )
2. Additives that modify feed intake, digestion, growth, feed efficiency, metabolism and performance.
a. Feed flavors to increase feed intake
b. Digestion modifirs( Enzymes- enhance digestibility B-gluconase) phytases increase the bio-availability of P.
c. metabolic modifiers
- Buffers - compounds that resist changes in ph. Prevents acidosis in ruminants fed high grain diets in feedlots (sodium bicarbonate).
- Antibloat agents (poloxlene, a detergent)is used to break down foam bubbles, releasing gas.
- Defaunating agent - substances that kill protozoa and saponins, a natural compound found in yucca.
- Ionophores. class of antibiotic that inhibit growth of gram positive bacteria. Ionophores also reduce methane production.
3- Additives that modify animal health
b. Environmentally active substances
4- additive that modify consumer acceptance of animal products coloring (pigmenting agents) xanthophyll ,a carotenoid pigment cause more yellow color in egg yolks and akin.
Finally, feed additive can only introduced on the market with legal and governmental authorization received after scientific declaring that there is no harm on human, animal and environment. Indeed, strict environmental policies have to be implemented
The Potentiality of Using Agri-by-Products in Feeding Ruminants
Prof. Mohsen M. Shoukry and Prof. Mohamed M. El-Shinnawy
This study reviews the estimated feed requirements of livestock (ruminants) expressed in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and digestible crude protein (DCP) or in different feedstuff sources. At the same time the feed resources available either green fodder, roughages or concentrates that can interfere in feeding ruminants. These estimates have shown a shortage in the coverage of those requirements is estimated at 2.28 million tons of TDN while the surplus amounts to about 50 thousand tons of DCP.After reviewing several proposals to correct the balance of fodder and the development of manufacturing feeds and how to make the best use of agricultural residues and that are now available, annually, the lowest estimates, about 25.5 million tons, using the Simplified techniques such as treatment with a solution of urea or ammonia, supporting and enrichment of poor quality roughages with vitamins and minerals and urea mixture or complete rations and ensiling of crop, it can be conceptualized to address the gap feed in animal nutrition as it shows the following table that the nutritive values of the agri-by-products used unimproved of 2730 thousand tons TDN if what has been adapted and enriched can raise the nutritive value by about 25% represents an increase of 682 thousand tons of TDN, and if what was used 60% of agricultural residues, which are neglected and burned, the nutritional value of 3500 thousand tons and thus the total value added, about 4182 thousand tons . This amount covers shortage in fodder balance and there are large surplus of TDN could be replace the use of the vast amount of clover in winter and providing a large cultivated area by the cultivation of wheat to provide part of the imported wheat and provide hard currency for the country. Increase can be obtained in the nutritive values of the agri-by-products, used and proposed for use by the application of simplified techniques to improve the nutritive value (in thousand tons TDN):
* Waste proposed for use in 60% of the quantities available is not being used.
** Estimated improvement in the nutritive value by 25% of the TDN and doubling the DCP.
Egg Consumption in Relation to Public Health
Prof. Talaat Mostafa El-Sheikh
Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, SohagUniveristy
Eggs are nutrition powerhouse. It rich in folate, Choline , vitamin B12, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, Vitamin E,eggs also provides a good source of lutein, a type of antioxidants. Egg yolk and albumen chalaza are rich sources of "sialic acid," which has powerful antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. The benefits of consumed eggs are:-
1- Omega-3 eggs contain two types of fatty acids that have been shown in clinical trials to help manage heart disease by reducing the risk of blood clots and abnormal heart rhythms.
2- Lutein and zeaxanthin from eggs helps in maintaining the eye health and reducing the risks of age-related macular degeneration, a major cause of irreversible blindness.
3- Egg yolks are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, nutrients that promote the production of visual pigments. “2 eggs per day is probably all that is needed to maximise blood levels of lutein and zeaxanthin”.
4- Eggs and Cholesterol: Studies have shown that healthy adults can enjoy an egg every day without increasing their risk for heart disease. A study by the Harvard School of Public Health found no significant link between eating eggs and developing heart disease among healthy individuals.
5- Phosphatidylcholine compositions and methods for lowering intestinal absorption and plasma levels of cholesterol
6- New scientific research confirms that the cholesterol in eggs has very little effect on blood cholesterol levels in healthy adults. In fact, a study by the Harvard School of Public Health found that most people can eat up to one egg a day without increasing their heart disease risk.
8- Women who used to eat more eggs during their high school years may be less likely to develop breast cancer. New research from Harvard, published in Breast Cancer Research, found that higher levels of egg consumption during adolescence are associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer.
Update on Obesity., Prof. Lobna M.S. El- Hadidy
Endocrinologists have unique skills in evaluating and caring for patients with metabolic diseases. As such, they have a special role to play within the organizations in which they work as leaders in the approach to managing obese patients. Recent epidemiological data demonstrate that the prevalence of obesity is beginning to plateau. However, the rate of severe obesity in adults and the prevalence of overweight among children continue to grow, suggesting that in the future there will be an increasing burden of obesity-related illnesses. A number of recent studies have identified a number of novel mechanisms that predispose to obesity including several newly identified genes, the role of intestinal microflora, and even social networks. The selection of treatment for obese patients remains a complex issue. Recent studies demonstrate that a range of dietary approaches including the Atkins diet can provide modest weight loss, although the key feature appears to be adherence in the dietary strategy. High levels of physical activity appear to be necessary to maintain a reduced state, although modest increases in activity improve fitness. Although the new understanding of biology of weight regulation has provided a wide range of potential drug targets, available pharmacotherapy options remain limited although a number of potential targets show promise. Recent data provides the most enthusiasm for surgical treatment of obesity. Several recent studies demonstrate a reduction in mortality and dramatic benefits in diabetes in obese patients treated surgically. Questions remain as to the best surgical approach and the cost effectiveness. Research advances in obesity continue to move at a rapid pace and raise hopes for more effective management strategies in the future.
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