Egyptian Nutrition Society
الجمعية المصرية للتغذية
ORAL PRESENTATIONS (Short Notes)
Seed Sprouts as a Functional Food to Produce Sprout Veggie Burger
Abdalla M. M.F. and Hanan M.A. El-Ghandour
Horticulture Dept. Faculty of Agric. Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt
The processed meat consumption in Egypt has increased steadily, and this has a negative effect on numerous health and environmental aspects. To chive healthier and population and better environment in Egypt, Replacement of all or part of the processed meat by more sustainable plant protein sources as legumes is a necessity. Therefore, The research investigated the effect of substituting of meat by 100% of sprouted faba bean, lentil, chickpea seeds and whole wheat grain or soy bean flour to produce sprout veggie burger.
Prepared sprout veggie burger was subjected to chemical and sensory analysis to evaluate the suitability of sprout veggie burger to consumption. Results showed excellent taste, texture, color, odor and higher protein content (23% and 24%) and essential amino acids for sprout veggie burger made from 50% sprouted faba bean and 50% sprouted lentil with soy bean flour and sprout burger made of 33.3% sprouted faba bean, 33.3% sprouted lentil and 33.3% sprouted chickpea with soya bean flour was also acceptable and nutritious. Chemical score was calculated for all veggie burger. Methionine was the first limiting amino acid among all veggie burger and followed by valine was the second limiting amino acid. Development of sprout veggie burger from germinated faba bean, lentil and chickpea may be promising in Egyptian human foods for their nutritional advantageous due to high essential amino acids content. In addition, the veggie burger was acceptable by panelist and useful from respect of the human health and has an economic aspect to the market beef burger with 65% meat or market vegetable burger made of soy bean and barley.
Improving Nutritional Value of Marshmallow (Children Sweets) by
Using Natural Sources.
Marshmallows, although quite easy to make, introduce many confectionery skills to the food product manufacturer. Product is safe to eat over a time period which satisfies marketing, transporting, storage, retailing and eating characteristics of the product. This is referred to as the shelf-life.
A marshmallow is a light, fluffy sweet made by beating air into a sugar solution containing (a type of) gum (eggelatine), colour and flavour. This mixture is then poured into moulds and allowed to set. To explain some of the science behind the process: beating air into the gelatine solution produces a structure not unlike that of bread, although with smaller air bubbles. The gelatine will eventually harden and in so doing will trap the air that has been added to the mixture. The resulting product is spongy and slightly rubbery.
The basic ingredients and approximate proportions are as follows (Sugar 40-48%, Glucose 0-25%, Water 24-30%, Gelatine 2-3%, Flavours minimum, Colours minimum. Other ingredients sometimes used for marshmallows are cream of tartar and/or citric acid. Both these ingredients can assist the inversion of sugar which can improve the keeping quality of the product by minimizing the chance for the sugar to form crystals. Crystal formation will give the marshmallows an unsatisfactory texture. In addition, cream of tartar gives a mild acid taste to the product which some consumerspreference. The use of those ingredients may allow the amount of glucose, added in its pure form, to be reduced because the inversion process increases the overall amount of glucose in the recipe. Glucose is a hygroscopic substance ie it attracts moisture. Therefore, it is important to use the minimum quantity of glucose necessary to prevent crystallization of the sucrose. This will minimize the tendency for the glucose to attract water followed by increasing the storage life. The most commonly used essences are rose water and vanilla. However, you could experiment with any essence you wanted to. Any food grade color could be experimented with according to local preferences and local regulations.
The well-documented health benefits of a diet high in fruit and vegetables has led to a growing interest in so-called “functional foods” and their application in health and disease. In recent years, the root vegetable ( Beta vulgaris rubra), otherwise known as red beet root (herein referred to as beet root) has attracted much attention as a health promoting functional food. This is the powerful antioxidant responsible for the beet’s vibrant color. The main benefits associated with Goldenberry (Physalisperuviana),are its nutritional composition and bioactive components and a promising exotic fruit that could be a subject of many novel foods. In addition, they are an excellent source of provitamin A, vitamin C, Fe, and some of the vitamin B-complex. goldenberry juice showed lower levels of total cholesterol, total triacylglycerol and total low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Goldenberry juice is rich in water and fat-soluble bioactive compounds and could be a novel source of functional drinks. The berry is enclosed in papery huskorcalyx, with smooth orange- yellow skin and juicy pulp containing numerous small seeds. The purpose of this review is to back to natural sources as well the nutritional, phytochemical, and antioxidant such as Goldenberry(Physalisperuviana) and Red Beet Root (Beta vulgaris rubra) are a promising exotic fruit and vegetable, that could be a subject of many novel foods.
of Household Food Insecurity and Coping Strategies in Monsoon
Affected Area in Egypt
In winter 2010, Egypt was exposed to heavy wind and rains (monsoon) in Sinai and Aswan governorates. The state of food insecurity and coping strategies during and after this crisis was studied in Aswan governorate. A longitudinal study (March- December, 2010) was conducted among 287 families and ended by 226. Data collected include status of housing, types of damage, types of humanitarian aids, family coping strategies used, anthropometric measurement (<5 yr children), food consumption score (FCS) and household dietary diversity (HDDS). Majority of families 82% stayed in their houses which partially damaged; the rest lived in temporary conditions (tents, rent, with relatives etc.). Humanitarian aids reach almost all families including subsistence food items and drinking water. Coping strategies order during and after cries were; use less favorable food (20% Vs 21.6%), depends on help (15% Vs 0.7%), eat less per meal (13.4% Vs 16.1%), change food distribution (11.5% Vs 12.5%), food on credit (9.1%Vs 12.8%) and reduce number meals per day (8.1% Vs 10.1%). The main change in higher percentage of all strategy except aids due to phasing- out aids. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and under-weight (children under 5 years) were 27.5%, 20% and 15.4% respectively, and raised approximately 1% for each parameter after 9 months. Due to food aids during crisis, food quality was better among 67.3% households compared to 32.7% after, and this reflected on FCS and HDDS during and after crisis.
Effect of Evening Primrose Seed Oil Against Stannous Chloride
Induced Toxicity in Male Rats
Evening primrose seed oil (Oenotherabiennis) has many activities including anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of evening primrose seed oil (EPO) in stannous chloride(SnCl2) intoxicated rats. This study was conducted on twenty four albino male rats and classified into four groups, one of them served as control group while the four groups injected with SnCl2. Group 2 received only SnCl2. Groups 3and 4 were administrated 10 and 20 ml/kg/diet/dayEPO for 6 weeks. Results revealed that EPO resulted in a significant decrease in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor, acetyl cholinesteras, very low density lipoprotein, cholesterol and triglycride, creatinine, urea nitrogen and uric acid values, however caused a significant increase in sexual hormonal levels when compared to the control (+ve), in a dose dependant manner. It can be concluded that treatment with of evening primrose oil increases the protective capacity against toxicity effects of stannous chloride.
Anticancer Activity, Phytochemical Evaluation, GC-Mass Spectrometry
Analysis and In vivo Evaluationof Hypolipidimic Effect of
Methanolic and Ethanolic Prickly
Pear Cactus Peel Extracts.
Prickly pear cactus (Opuntiaficus-indica) is an edible cactus plant that grows in the arid and semi-arid regions. Cactus peelmakes up about 40% of the whole fruit weight and issubsequently the major by-product. The immense amount of cactus peel waste was the motivation for accomplishing the present work by presenting an informative profile of the nutritional constituents that will serve as a basis for the economicalutility of cactus peel. Additionally; it may lead to the elimination of waste in a friendly environmental manner. The obtained data showed that cactus peel is a source of protein (4.75%), carbohydrates (59.25%), calcium (2.04 %), iron (80.35 mg/kg), zinc (37.49 mg/kg), copper (1.92 mg/kg), phosphorous (0.084%), mannan (7.76%), betaglucan (27.25%) and β-carotene (141.4 µg/100g). Cactus peel content of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin was 0.5%, 10.92% and 1.2%, respectively. Amino acid profile ensured the existence of fifteen amino acids, of which seven were essentials: leucine (0.22%), valine (0.19%), lysine (0.11%), phenylalanine (0.14%), threonine (0.14%), isoleucine (0.15%) and histidine (0.09%). The remaining amino acids were aspartic acid (0.28%), argenine (0.15%), alanine (0.19%), proline (0.23%), glutamic acid (0.32%), glycine (0.18%) and serine (0.14%).
Phytochemical screening of the methanolic and ethanolic extracts
revealed the presence of total amino acids in a range of 0.35 and
0.3%, respectively. Mannan content 9.89 and 10.48%. While, β-glucan
content was 34.74% and 36.79%, respectively.Indols content were
0.052% and 0.021%, respectively. Sucrose level were between 3.3%
and 6.05%, respectively. The extraction of these bioactive compounds
constitutes a key step in the manufacture of phytochemical-rich
products. GC-MS analysis revealed the existence of many common
compounds in both extracts as p-coumaric acid, α-isomethyl ionone,
heptadecanoic acid, kaempferol, 6-octadecenoic acid and hexestrol.
In vivo experiment was carried out to investigate the
hypocholesterolemic activity of cactus peel extracts on the
biochemical parameters, enzyme activities and lipids profile in rats
fed high fat diet. Additionally, significant increase in serum
calcium, iron, zinc and copper levels reflected the bioavailability
of these extracts҆. Moreover,in vitro cytotoxic activity of
the extracts of cactus peel was assessed against brine shrimp and
recorded to be 5.8% and 5.2% for methanolic and ethanolic extracts,
respectively. Sulforhodamine B assay was used to evaluate the
anti-cancer activity of the extracts against colon carcinoma cell
line (Caco-2) and liver cancer cell line (Hep-G2). LC50
(concentration that kills 50% of the cells) were calculated.
Methanolic extract exhibited cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cancer cell
line with IC50 = 47.5µg/ml. Contrarily, ethanolic extract
did not record any cytotoxicity. While, IC50 were found
to be 20 µg/ml and 22.5 µg/ml for liver cancer cell line (Hep-G2),
respectively. In conclusion; cactus peel extracts may successfully
be useful in cancer control. Further work is needed to develop a
processing to produce it commercially.
Protective Role of Different Doses of Ascorbic Acid Against Harmful
Effects of Lead in Liver, Kidney and Brain in Male Rats
Ascorbic acid (AA) is one of the most potent antioxidants that interacts directly with the oxidizing radicals and protects the cells from reactive oxygen species. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the beneficial effect of different level of (AA) that can protect liver, kidney and brain from harmful effects of lead in male rats. Fifty male albino rats with average body weight 180 g were assigned into five equal groups; control group (received tap water only), lead group (received 0.2% lead acetate /kg BW) and the other three groups (received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg ascorbic acid along with 0.2%lead acetate /kg BW), respectively. Doses were orally administered every day for 8weeks.The results showed that lead acetate significantly (P<0.05), increased transaminases and Phosphatasesin plasma and decreased in liver. Lead acetate increased urea and creatinine and decreased bilirubin.Furthermore, the presence of AA with lead acetate alleviates its toxic effects.The best effect was found with the high level of AA (1500mg/kg BW).Histopathology examination showed that; the presence of AAcaused improvement in the histopathological changes caused by lead acetate. From the present study, it can be concluded thatAA is capable to alleviate the harmful effects of lead and highly recommended increasing the daily intake of AA either from food (high source of AA) or from supplementation.
Antioxidant Activity of Marjoram Extract and its Effect on the
Antioxidative Properties of Broilers’ Chicken Meat
The antioxidant properties of marjoram ethanolic extract (MEE) were
evaluated in the present study. The total antioxidant capacity of
the extract was found to be 323.86 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g,
total phenolic content was 177.08 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and
total flavonoids content was 54.43 mg querectin equivalent/g. A
total number of ninety Ross broiler chicks (one day old) were
distributed into three groups of three replicates each. The chicks
were reared for 36 days and the dietary treatments consisted of a
corn-soybean meal basal diet (control); the test diet was
supplemented with 100 ppm marjoram extract (T1); and the second test
diet was supplemented with 500 ppm marjoram extract (T2). At the end
of the experimental period, breast and thigh meat samples were
separately stored and refrigerated at 4°C. The meat samples were
analyzed at three storage periods (day 1, 3, and 7) for their
proximate composition and antioxidative activity. The results showed
that the supplementation of MEE into broilers’ diet did not have any
significant influence on the proximate analysis of breast and thigh
meat. On the other hand, the total phenolic content of groups T1 and
T2 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the control group.
The addition of MEE resulted in a significant (p<0.05) improvement
in the 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging
activity of chicken meat in T1 and T2 as compared to control. The
meat samples of T2 retained their high scavenging activity up to
storage day 7. Also, the supplementation of diets with MEE caused a
significant (p<0.05) delay in lipid oxidation of chicken meat in T1
and T2 as compared to control. The results of the present work
suggest that the dietary inclusion of marjoram extract in broilers
diet can improve their antioxidative activity during refrigerated
Effect of Betaine Levels, Stocking Density and Their Interaction on
The Blood Constituents of Laying Hens
Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Sohag
University, Sohag, Egypt.
A total number 144 laying hens of Lohaman LSL, 28 weeks old were equally divided into four groups (36 birds /each) with three densities (3, 4 and 5 birds/ each) with 3 replicates /each group. In the first group, hens were fed on the basal ration without any supplementation and served as control. While, hens in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were fed the same ration and supplemented with 150, 200 and 250% betaine levels. All birds were housed in the battery cages provided with a feeder and nipple for supplementing water. Feed and water were available ad libitim throughout the experiment. All hens were exposed to 16L: 8D with 30 lux light density from incandescent source lamb at the highest of 2 m from the floor.
The results showed that theheterophil, lymphocyte cellsand H/L ratio significantly decreased in treated groups, while basophile significantly increased in treated groups .Esionphiel cells of laying hens significantly increased at density 5 birds/cage but significantly decreased at density 4 birds/cage , However the lymphocyte significantly decreased at density 4 and 5 birds/cage by about 4.83and18.8 %, respectively compared to density 3birds/cage .Triglyceride. significantly increased (P≤0.05) in groups 2nd (150%) and 3rd (200%), but in groups 4th (250%) significantly decreased in triglyceride .However cholesterol significantly decreased in 2nd (150%), 3rd (200%) and 4th (250%) compared to control group. While the corresponding values of total protein , albumin , and globulin were no significantly affected by betaine supplementation. The blood proteins levels of laying hens no significantly effected in all densities. ALT significantly increased in (P≤0.05) of groups 2nd (150%)and 3rd (200%) and AST significantly increased in groups 3rd (200%)and 4th (250%) While AST significantly decreased in 2nd (150%), and ALT in group 4th (250%) significantly decreased compared to control group. Blood minerals ( Na , Ca and P)no significantly affected in all groups 2nd (150%), 3rd (200%) and 4th (250%) compared to control group .Blood minerals of laying hens were no significantly affected in all densities.
Bioavailability and Effects of Rumen Protected Methionine on Milk
Yield and Amino Acid Metabolism in Lactating Crossbred Frisan Cows
The objective of this study was to evaluate ruminal degradation and productive performance of lactating cows fed rations supplemented with one of two different sources of methionine products [methionine hydroxy analogue (HMB) or DL-methionine (DL-Met)]. The effect of the two sources of methionine on ruminal degradations, milk yield and plasma essential amino acids concentrations were measured in two experiments. In experiment 1, the ruminal degradation of methionine was assessed using in situ bag techniques with three Barki female sheep (with an average of 44kg) fitted with permanent ruminal fistula. In the second experiment nine lactating Crossbred Friesian multiparous cows in similar condition were randomly assigned to three experimental treatments to determine milk yield and milk composition. Methionine concentration was assayed in blood plasma. The obtained results indicated that the rate of disappearance of HMB was significantly (P>0.05) lower than DL-Met. (52.12. vs. 86.73). While the highest (P>0.05) rumen escapes were recorded for HMB. Methionine hydroxy analogue had more resistance to ruminal degradation than DL-Met.
The results also revealed that daily milk production and FCM of cows fed 25g day HMB was significantly (P>0.05) higher than those fed the control or ration supplemented with DL-Met. Treatment had no effect on percentage of lactose. However, total solids, fat and milk protein significantly (P>0.05) increased with 25g day HMB supplementation. The results also showed that methionine concentration in blood plasma increased significantly (P>0.05) with cows fed ration supplemented with HMB compared with those fed control ration or those fed ration supplemented with DL-Met. Results of the present study also showed that supplementation of 25g day HMB improved, bioavailability of methionine and promoted amino acid utilization in lactating cows which increase milk yield.
In-vivo Evaluation of Protein Quality, Phytochemical Characterization and Impacts of Soaking and Roasting Processes on Raw Apricot Kernels
Badr, Sh.A., Eman SA. Ramis, Ola A. Wahdan, Dina M. Sakr and Hanan M. A. El-Ghandour
Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agricultural Research Center, Giza,Egypt
The aim of the study was to assess the protein quality of raw apricot (prunusarmeniaca) kernels and monitored the effect of soaking and roasting processes on the bioavailability of the treated samples by conducting a biological experiment using male albino rats. Biological value of raw apricot kernels (RAK), roasted kernel (RK), soaked kernels (SK) and roasted soaked kernels (RSK) meals were of 79.34, 49.14, 72.94 and 64.66%, respectively. True digestibility ranged from 94.0, 77.14, 93.65 and 85.33%, respectively. Net protein utilization recorded 74.58, 37.91, 68.31 and 55.17, respectively. Phytochemical screening, chemical composition, minerals content and amino acids profile were included in this work. The results indicated that crude protein was 31.45, 37.15, 27.1 and 26.7%, respectively. The tested samples had high fat content valued 31.07, 17.25, 35.05 and 38.91%, respectively Fibers ranked for 11.4, 15.6, 17.51 and 19.04%, respectively. Carbohydrate amounted to 17.3, 21.9, 13.94 and 9.73%, respectively. Raw and roasted kernels had maximum phosphorous content of 6109 and 6963 ppm, followed by soaked kernels (2645) and roasted soaked kernels (2327). All samples were packed with iron (48.55-60.15 ppm), zinc (33.49-54.30 ppm) and copper (9.46-15.8 ppm).Amino acids profile ascertained that glutamic was the most abundant recording 6.51, 6.66, 6.08 and 5.77%, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity of the roasted kernels was 2301, followed by raw kernels (1127), soaked kernels (190) and finally roasted soaked kernels 311.3mg AAE/100g.Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) increased by increasing the concentration mediating a high reducing ability of all type of kernels. Total phenols accounted for 13.68, 26.48, 17.06 and 18.64 mg GAE/100g, respectively and falconoid content were 6.12, 10.52, 5.67 and 8.14 mgQE/100g, respectively. Qualitative determination of glycosides ensured its presence in the raw and treated kernels. Soaked kernels had the low concentration of tannin (0.57%) considered as anti-nutrient factor. The above mentioned samples were subjected to solvent extraction to obtain the respective oils. The obtained oils had peroxide value of 23.17, 5.79, 1.67 and 2.34 Meq o2 /Kg oil, respectively. Free fatty acid valued 2.66, 0.12, 7.3 and 6.58%, respectively. Iodine value registered 106.13, 106.5, 106.43 and 105.19 mg KOH/g, respectively. Fatty acids profile ensured that oleic acid was the most abundant in all tested oil samples accounted for 60.82, 60.54, 60.54 and 61.49%, respectively. Linoleic acid was the second major fatty acids valued 25.94, 26.06, 26.07 and 26.13%, respectively. GC-MS analysis ensured the presence of several structural related bioactive compounds in the extracted oils. It can be concluded that raw and treated apricot kernels are good sources of protein, fat and fiber and considered as natural antioxidants packed with iron, zinc, phosphorous and copper. Thus kernels serve as a potential source for use in several food industries.
Watermelon White Rind as a Natural Valuable Source of Phytochemicals
Watermelon white rind as agriculture waste posed potential pollution and ecological problems. Rind constitutes 30% of the weight of whole watermelon fruit. The present study focused on determining the antioxidant activity, fatty acid composition, mineral content, vitamins and amino acid profile of the white rind. The results revealed that the rind had total antioxidant activity of 2974±11.31 mg AAE/100g, total phenols content of 139.6±2.54 mg GAE/100g and total flavonoids of 40.4 ±0.92 mg QE/100g. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay indicated the high reducing ability of the rind. Crude protein content amounted to 13.3%, crude fiber (14.7%) and fat (2.11%). Moreover, mineral analysis ensured that the rind is a source of iron (30.4 mg/kg), potassium (6.95%), copper (9.4 mg/kg), chromium (85µg/100g) and selenium (542µg/100g). Unsaturated fatty acids amounted to 81.2%. Glutamic acid and lysine were the most predominant amino acid found in the rind.Vitamins A and E valued 383.44 µg/100g and 3.72 mg/100g, respectively. As a conclusion, watermelon white rind can be regarded as a potential source of phytochemicals and other nutrients.
Effect of Dietary Weaning Diets Supplemented withFeed Additives on Growth, Feed Utilization, Survival, Body Composition and Intestinal Bacterial Load of Early Weaning European Seabass, Dicentrarchus Labrax Post-Larvae
Goda, A.M1, Omar, E.A2, Srour, T.M2, Kotiet, A.M1, El-Haroun, E3 and Simon J. Davies4
1 Fish Nutrition Laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Egypt
2 Animal and Fish production Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Bash), Alexandria University, Egypt
3 Animal Bioscience department, Ontario Agriculture College, University of Guelph, Canada
4 Fish Nutrition and Aquaculture, Department of Animal Production, Welfare and Veterinary Sciences, Harper Adams University, England
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of Garlen®; Diamond V XPC® and Bactozyme® and their combination in the diets of European sea bass, Dicentrarchuslabraxlarvae development in hatcheries on feed intake, growth performance, feed efficiency, intestinal bacterial, survival rate and economics analysis. Dicentrarchuslabraxjuveniles (1.4 ± 0.5 mg) were distributed into eight experimental groups with a density of 2.5 larvae per liter. Eight isonitrogenous (55% crude protein) and iso-caloric (19.2±0.2 MJ/kg, DM) weaning diets were formulated to contain the control diet (no feed additives) and individually or mixed alternatively of three feed additives (Garlen®; Diamond V XPC® and Bactozyme®). Each experimental diet was allocated to three tanks of fish and fed for 12 weeks. Growth and survival rate (S %) were improved for larvae fed the diets supply with either (Diamond V XPC® + Bactozyme®) or (Garlen®+ Diamond V XPC®+ Bactozyme®), respectively compare to control larvae group. The best FCR value was recorded for larvae fed a diet supply with (Garlen®+ Diamond V XPC® + Bactozyme®), while control larvae group observed the worst value. The optimum significant (P<0.05) nutrient utilization values, larvae body crude CP content, Activity test (ATV%) and profit index (PI) values were observed for larvae fed diet containing Garlen®+Diamond V XPC®+Bactozyme®, compared to other treatments. The opposite trend was observed for total bacterial (TBC) and Vibrio sp. counts. No significant (P>0.01) difference was recorded in Aeromonassp. count values in all experimental treatments. The results from this study show that (Garlen®; Diamond V XPC® and Bactozyme®) individually or mixed alternately as growth promoters and immune-stimulants supplementary early weaning larval diet of European sea bass, Dicentrarchuslabraxin hatchery led to improve growth performance, feed utilization, survival, lowest intestinal bacterial load and highest profit index (LE).
Association Between Household Use of Chlorine Containing Chemicals
and Obesity: A Cross-Aectional Study
Studies have shown high prevalence of obesity among Saudi subjects, with the maximum prevalence among married women. Increasing exposure to the industrial chemicals with (endocrine-disrupting chemicals, EDCs) such as household Chemicals Containing chlorine could be a factor contributing to the increased obesity.The study was carried out to determine the association between the use of household chemicals Containing chlorine and the prevalence of obesity among married women. Cross sectional study including 1091 native healthy Saudi married women were randomly chosen from those attending 20 primary health care centers in AlmadinahAlmonawara city. Anthropometric examination and full history of using chlorine containing chemicals were done to all subjects. There was highly significant correlation between females body mass index and the use of chlorine containing Chemicals (P=0.002)
Conclusion: chronic exposure to EDCs may be a contributing factor for obesity. More detailed studies are needed to confirm BPA as risk factor for obesity.
Body Image Perception in Relation to Overweight and Obesity.
This study was conducted to identify the relation between body image perception and overweight and obesity among female in Egypt. The study included 500 overweight and obese female volunteered and randomly selected from outpatient clinic of National Nutrition Institute, Cairo. Anthropometric measurements, body mass index BMI calculation, dietary assessment were performed. Body image perception, and body image desired were made for all females using silhouette scale. Body image perception was significantly related to age, marital and social status and number of pregnancy. Sugar, soft drinks, fast foods, high energy and protein intake were important dietary factor affecting overweight and obesity among the sample. About 45% of females’ perception was affected by physical exercises and environmental factors (media, relatives and previous cloth size). Body image perception was realistic and matched well with actual BMI obesity classification. The relation between desired body image and BMI classes showed majority of females desired to have body image as normal (50%), but overweight shape account for (22.6%), which may reflect a tendency of accepting degree of overweight as normal shape. Figure-out body image perception and desired are important factor to be considered for management of overweight and obesity among Egyptian female.
Effect of Lemon Balm (Melissa Officinalis L.) on Fatty Liver
Induced by Oxytetracycline in Albino Rats
With growing burden of liver dysfunction, the use of natural plant products is increasing due to its powerful antioxidant properties, negligible side effects and economical merit.The aim of this work was to assesses the effect of lemon balm leaves powder given at two levels (10 and 20 g/kg/ diet/ day) on oxytetracycline induced fatty liver in rats. A total of 32 rats weighing 120-130 g were randomly distributed into four groups of eight rats in par group. Injected intraperitonealy of oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg body weight/day) for three days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a signiﬁcant increase in serum hepatic markers namely aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferse (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), also increased hepatic lipid peroxidation (MAD). The administration of lemon balm (10 and 20 g/kg/ diet/ day) weekend the oxytetracyc line induced hepatotoxicity by the significant decreased levels of serum AST, ALT, GGT, LDH, glucose, TG, TC, LDL-C, urea, creatininie and MDA. It also and significant increase serum total protein, albumin, globulin, HDL-C in lemon balm treated rats compared with untreated fatty liver group. Additionally it increase SOD and total antioxidant capacity in lemon balm treated groups at the dose of (10 g/kg) compared with untreated fatty liver rats. Thus, lemon balm treatment had remarkable effects on liver marker enzymes level and lipid peroxidation in rats. It can be concluded that lemon balm leaves phenolic compounds has potential protection effect against hepatocellular damage and fatty liver.
Effect of Sodium Alginate , Propolise and Carob Seeds Powder on
Hypercholosterolemic Albino Rats
This investigation was conducted to explore the protective effect of sodium alginate ,propolis and carob seeds, ,for hypercholesterolemic and atherosclerotic rats. to improve the blood glucose level , the lipids profile Total triglycerides (TG) Total Cholesterol (TC),Atherogenic index(AI), Low density libobrotin Cholesterol(LDL-c)-High density libobrotin Cholesterol(HDL-c),Very low density libobrotin Cholesterol (VLDL-c),and some other physiological characteristics such as the liver function Aspartate transaminas (AST) ,Alanine transaminase(ALT)and Alkaline phosphatase(ALP), kidneys functions (uric acid, urea nitrogen and creatinine) , in addition to the Body weight gain% (B.W.G), Food intake(FI) and weight of internal organs. Twenty five(25) male mature albino rats were used and divided into five main groups ,(5 rats each group), one of them used as control -ve while other groups had given 1.5% pure cholesterol plus 10% sheep tail fat for 15 days as control positive groups. One of these groups left as control+ve, and other groups of sodium alginate , propolis and carob seeds powder , at doses of 500 mg /kg B. W. for 42 days. Such treatments lowered the TC, TG, VLDL-c, LDL-c, & AI, while raised the HDL-c. Also, colloids diets reduced serum glucose, AST, ALT, ALP. The histopatholgical changes were; in line with the biochemical changes. Moreover, colloids treatment improved the Feed efficienncyratio(FER).Therefore, the study recommends that the colloids can be used in the treatment of the hypercholesterolemia. The food, should tend to invent prouducts with colloids, specially the carob powder that easily (can be) added to baking goods .Similarly sodium alginate &propolis may be blended with foods.
The Effect of Doum (Hyphaenethebaica)
Powder on Lipid Profile and Quality Characteristics of Cake
The effect of doum powder on lipid profile and the quality characteristics of doum supplemented cake were studied. Doum powder was subjected to chemical composition analysis and the biological study used five groups (6/ each) male Sprague Dawly. One group was fed on basal as negative control group. The second group was fed on fat diet as positive control group.The rest three groups were fed on fat diet supplemented with different percentages of doum powder (5, 10 and 15%) for 4 weeks. Blood samples were used to determine lipid profile, liver function and some minerals (iron, sodium and potassium). Shortening and spongy cakes were prepared by doum powder at (5, 10 and 15%) and the fortified cakes were subjected to sensory and objective evaluation. The results showed that, Doum powder contain high amounts of fiber, calcium and potassium, there was a significant decrease in cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein and atherogenic index in groups fed on 10 and 15% doum powder and a significant decrease in sodium level at (P< 0.05) and significant increase in potassium at 15% doum powder. Height, volume and index to volume in fortified shortening cake with 15 % doum were significantly increased to the control. But sensory evaluation results showed that there was a significant decrease in taste and odor scores in the shortening and spongy cakes fortified with 10 and 15% doum powder. It can be concluded that doum powder at 15 % gave better results in lowering lipid profile. But, the two types of cake at 5 % showed better quality characteristics. Flavor enhancers should be added to enhance cakes characteristics at high percentage of doum.
Nutritive Value and Therapeutic Effect of Myristica Fragrans (Nutmeg)
Against Liver Injury Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride (CCL4)
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a powerful hepato-toxic agent used for causing damage to the liver tissues in experimental animals. Nutmeg is commonly used as a spice and widely employed in the treatment and prevention of disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant compound of nutmeg and protective effect of nutmeg spice extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male albino rats. Administration of nutmeg extracts for 6 weeks. group (1) control (-ve) ,group (2) received (200 mg nutmeg extract/Kg body weight/ three times week),group (3) received CCL 4 only and group (4) received CCL 4with nutmeg extract. The results showed nutmeg extract significantly reduced the impact of CCl4 toxicity on the serum markers of liver damage, a spartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), urea and creatinine. In addition, treatment of nutmeg extract resulted in markedly increased the levels of antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and catalase enzymes in rats. Lipid profile (triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL and malonaldehyde (MDA) values were increased in group which received CCL 4 and decrease in nutmeg extract group, also HDL values increased in nutmeg group. Nutmeg extract acts as a potent hepato protective agent against CCl4 induced hepato-toxicity in rats. Results of the present work revealed that the rats treated with nutmeg extract showed significant improvement of the liver function, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes when compared with Nutmeg that nutmeg extract markedly reduced the toxicity of CCl4 and preserved the histo-architecture of the liver tissue to near normal.
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